Tesla Motors: Radar Mechanics Explained! Autopilot/Autonomous Radar

Tesla Motors: Radar Mechanics Explained! Autopilot/Autonomous Radar


hi folks lately we’ve seen a lot of impressive improvements from Tesla’s autopilot system one of the major components of this system is the radar and because of this radar sensor working impressive accident avoidance and driver assistance features we got traffic where cruise control autopilot collision-avoidance a pedestrian avoidance unfortunately zombie avoidance but that’s easily manually overridden by a sliding on the accelerator whole different topic anyways I thought we could dig a little bit deeper into this radar piece of hardware which is a amazing tiny piece of hardware that at that one of my viewers was able to dig up the Boche manufacturers features in specs paper so let’s take a look at this critical component i got four pages i have written note this was a little bit of a research project for me and that I learned a lot so let’s dig it dig into it the sensor is manufactured by Bosh Bosh also offers a scalable design and can modify the hardware to suit the needs of the specific met vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle requirements because Bosh is able to tailor the sensor to the auto manufacturers specs which of course Tesla most definitely has had some changes done and of course we also lack information on what those changes might may have been by Tesla we’re just going to have to go based on the publish documentation from Bosh and one thing although this call touched on this a little further one thing I can tell you is testable claims of distance that the vehicle can see is considerably further by about 90 meters compared to what box claims are well touch on that at the end closer to the end so let’s hit up the stock information here one of the sensors of multimodal with four independent received channels and dim digital beamforming multimodal means that it varies range and resolution depending on the target be informing means it is designed to detect objects within a certain range digital being forming is the amplitude phase variation is applied to signal after analog downconverter / digital down conversion the received signals from the antennas are first passed from the ADC and DC before summation of the operation being forming is used for directional signal transmission and reception it has the ability to change both the amplitude and phase with helps that has the ability to change both amplitude and phase with and helps with power variation as well as being steering in the dirt desired direction ok let’s see what you got my handwriting was crap so i retyped everything up oh my bullet points and notes i got a lot of them here summed up this all allows the sensor to be configured into pit with independent antenna for different directions improved accuracy and adjustable field of view depending on the situation by focusing the radar at a narrow main lobe with angle of plus or minus 6 degrees the system can react two vehicles of long-range and perform well at higher speeds as well as maximize interference excuse me as well minimize interference from vehicles in adjacent lanes so think of that as being like okay autopilot or traffic where cruise control you’re in a clustered situation you got lots of vehicles around you by focusing the radar think of it like focusing flashlight you can zero in on a specific section or object or in this case the lane directly in front of you it helps keep the vehicles on the side out of that field of view that’s directly in front of you so it doesn’t interfere basically okiya help you keep proper distance and react quicker to what’s directly in front of the vehicle the elevation antenna has a plus with a plus or minus plus minus 42 degree opening achieves a close-range detection zone capable of detecting a pedestrian stepping out onto the road from behind a parked car as as example as a early stage of detection due to the high level of integration of sensor control functionalities Josh was able to achieve compact design allowing he’s a placement within a really wide range a vehicle design so first gen autopilot it was a sensor on the bottom of the bumper nothing too special about that then they realized okay that placement really kind of sucks gets a lot of slush snow there so they moved it up and now it is actually behind the t emblem the intestinal insignia on the front bumper of the Refresh design model s cars and of course behind the tea on the X and most likely who sees me behind the tea on the model 3 equipped with a self-calibration system the sensor searches for reference points and first journey and calculates sensor access deviation from dynamic driving access axis not access but axis access there was a system software compensates for this deviation during learning phase some features or functions may be disabled until complete you’ll mostly see this metric house how working out with autopilot two point oh I with the autonomous hardware but in autopilot one point I know when my vehicle was delivered pretty much deal well no autopilot in cruise control did work however a lot of the parking features and other miscellaneous things i had a pop-up warning seeing these are not quite ready yet system is still being calibrated while blog just as example and at one point this past summer the system had to be recalibrated now it’s self-calibration system not automatic calibration system so when my system had to be recalibrated actually had to have service go in and they read set and then they actually took the car and drove it back and forth on the freeway in some city streets a number of times to recalibrate it solid-state components or in other words no mechanical moving parts allows the unit to have a high tolerance for vibration that’s a plus on wisconsin specifically Milwaukee roads where we have summer no excuse me you have winter then we have a pothole season and then road construction season the radar also has radome radome heating available of which my investigation show Tesla to have chosen based on my thermal imagery you can see that video under my account radon heating allows the unit to melt off slush ice and snow that is in direct contact with the radar sensor so that build-up unfortunately if it melts out little cavern can only melt what really what’s physically touching it so then you got a little cavern of slow snow slush and ice and you can lose access to the radar anyways which was a major one of the major reasons they raise the center of Tesla raised the sensor up higher it’s about a foot higher and the refreshed Model S’s than it was on the original styling the radar uses frequency band of 76 277 gigahertz due to triple carrier frequency at 77 gigahertz the sensor only needs one third of the antenna surface of the other older existing 24 gigahertz sensors to cover the same field of view at the same resolution benefits of this means significantly smaller allows measuring speed based on the Doppler effect which results in three times more accuracy than the older 24 gigahertz style units this allows sensor to intervene at an earlier stage to reduce speed in critical situations operation the radar is designed to detect objects and measure their speed and position relative to the movement of the vehicle which it is fitted to do this one the radar sends out a wave in the 676 277 gigahertz range via transmission and tennis two waves are reflected by objects in front of the video well relative speed and distance between the vehicle and other objects is determined based on the Doppler effect and the delay frequency shifts between the sent and received signals are generated and comparing the amplitude and faces of the radar signal measured by the for antenna it is possible to infer the position of the object what is the Doppler effect the Doppler effect is an increase or decrease in frequency of the radar as the source and observer move to oral way from each other this causes a sudden change in pitch as example I think fire truck coming towards you with its siren blasting we then as it’s going ok I guess I really don’t need to do the sound effects so anyways as the fire truck with its iron blasting comes towards you the pitch goes up and then as its driving away the pitch goes down say they happened with radar elevation antenna can generate an additional upward elevation being allowing the sensor to measure height of all detective objects to help reliably classify relevant objects and determine if a vehicle can drive under or over them special signal processing algorithms are used this allows the system to cope with complex traffic sexual situations and break more reliably even in the case of stationary objects predictive emergency braking is also available if peb determines the distance of the preceding vehicle is becoming critically short at a vehicle speed above 18 miles per hour hence the 18 mile per hour speed been made mom for traffic where cruise control and autopilot it will reap it will prepare the vehicle for potential emergency braking if the driver does not react the system uses audible visual warnings followed by a short jerk of the brakes this system initiates partial breaking and if driver also applies breaks it will calculate the pressure required to stop and apply additional force to avoid collision if peb detects unavoidable collision and operator does not intervene it can initiate full braking that test that thank you Mike Anthony if collision is unavoidable even with a eb it will do its best to mitigate the severity of the collision the sensor is capable of supporting traffic workers control up to 93 miles per hour 150 kph and intestines case also autopilot with a max relative speed of 50 miles per hour or 80 kph and works in stop-and-go environments if in case you’re not understanding what relative speed means ok think of it I’m going down the freeway at 60 mount 60 miles per hour and a vehicle passes me going 65 so even though i’m traveling 60 he’s traveling 65 are relative speed my speed in relation to the other vehicle is a five mile per hour difference so we’re traveling five miles per hour relative or think of it a two-lane highway country highway i’m driving 50 the person coming from the other directions driving 50 as we pass each other are relative speed is actually 100 miles per hour for each traveling then away from each other at 100 miles per hour I don’t think I explain that last one quite right you get the idea heading distance indicator can warn the driver if safe following distance is not being maintained the units also incorporate sensor data fusion here’s where a whole bunch of magic happens they’re after me lucky charms wrong serial sorry sensor data fusion combines the benefits of different sensors and measuring principles in the most effective way possible providing data that individual sensors working on their own would be unable to generate this fusion increases the measurement range reliability and accuracy video sensors along with software algorithms are data fuse with the radar in Tesla autopilot without the camera car cannot do autopilot without the radar Crocker to autopilot needs both and the data fused together in put it by both to be able to do autopilot and not kill anybody this fusion also allows for automatic emergency braking with pedestrian protection now Tesla has been updating software in really starting to activate incorporate more and more of these features into their system actually they’re all there it’s just now their programming them to all work in synchronous asynchronous synchronicity close enough one example of this is i recently posted a video showing my car driving down a road that had no lines autopilot was in fact active and doing all the steering and all the hard work it was using a combination of the radar the autopilot camera and the 12 sensors sonar sensors surrounding the vehicle in order to maintain a radar Elaine in order to maintain driving in its Lane even without those lines on the road you previously to Tesla activating these features which is don’t do that i was testing things out don’t do that prior to this that would have not have made possible so Tesla has really started incorporating not just this fusion of data between all the sensors and program programming that into the autopilot system but this fusion is also gonna be incorporating data from the GPS sensor and the fleet learning and just mashing it altogether uses as much of that as it can to to control the vehicle every extra little bit of data it can helps so let’s just go over Josh statement of customer fat benefits one digital beamforming two independent mode for height measurements three cost-effective design for tailored solutions five self-calibration 6 can be concealed behind the bumper seven no moving parts aight sensor data fusion nine small size 10 high speed and flex relay enter can in flex really interfaces and 1176 277 gigahertz that covers be sense are the Tesla radar sensor and as long as we got it i’m gonna have all this in the description box below so it’s easier for you guys to reference and access and as long as we got it using all recycled paper you know no throw stuff away print on the back side then recycle it the technical features now a Boche has available both a forward-facing and rear-facing radar device radar sensor i am only talking to be talking about the and have only been talking about the forward-facing I left out for the rear-facing because as of right now Tesla does not use the rear-facing radar not in current autopilot 1 point 0 matin autopilot 2 point 0 as far as what we’re aware even autopilot on the model 3 and model x do not use the rear radar only front-facing so frequency range 76 277 gigahertz detection range point 3 6 260 meters so there’s that hundred and sixty meters that box states and i believe i read that Tesla systems can see seen up to 250 meters so that is a 90 meter difference now as i just read with the with the the fusion data fusion sensor data fusion how it can change the many jobs uh combines different sensors and measuring principles and the most effective way now this is radar only can see if 260 meters but it’s quite possible if you combine both the radar and the camera together the autopilot camera that you could get that further distance of sight from the radar or from the system feel the view horizontal main antenna plus or minus 6 degrees provides a hundred and 60 meter distance viewing distance plus or minus 90 degree gives a 100-meter viewing distance and plus or minus 10 degrees gives 860 meter fuel of you are viewing distance elevation antenna plus or minus 25 degrees gives a 36 meter plus or minus forty-two degrees gives you 12 meter measuring accuracy distance point 12 meters for speed accuracy is point 11 meters per second and angle accuracy is 0.3 degrees plus or minus object separation capability distance point seven two metres speed points66 m/s and angle seven degrees the cycle time maximum or the fastest cycle time is 60 milliseconds so I’m going to touch on that real quick and interject here that means was my and then the calculator let’s see so so according to Bosh the radar sensor to actually refresh and take a sample every 60 milliseconds that means it’s actually capable of sixteen point six seven refreshes per second in firmware 8 according to Tesla firmware 8 has bumped up the refresh rate from the radar 210 refresh rate 10 Ryo 10 times per second so that’s 100 milliseconds so it looks like Tesla still has a considerable amount of room to go that they could increase the Refresh speed is low as 60 milliseconds i have just to interject again my thoughts on why they may not have done this on the one point or cards with firmware eight might be just the sheer processing power in these systems these are all tegra3 systems now the autopilot two-point old cars have computer systems the Frankie forget the exact model by Nvidia but they are approximately 40 times faster than the autopilot 1.0 and classic models computer systems that is fast and that’s all for fully autonomous driving so it’s quite possible Tesla might use more of that data from the radar in the future and that will add another 6.7 frames for per second of data of radar data has frequency modulation FM CW there’s another 1 i’m going to interject done max number of detected objects is 32 sorry trigger guide to the galaxy fans it’s not 42 apparently the magic numbers 32 now from where seven with autopilot and I i went back in when firmware it was released I touched on this now I always knew and firm or seven that the radar would see a maximum about 55 other vehicles on the road at one time for the release notes of press release of firmware eight Tesla said they bumped that up by five fold so 5 10 15 20 25 wasn’t six-fold they bumped up 5464 they said they bumped it up somehow I think you’ll see the five or six fold and whatever it was my guesstimation was that a Model S’s radar community tech approximately thirty objects at a time that was back that was before I knew anything about this based on previous calculations and observations with the car so it looks like i was only two objects off once again though customized radar how could be processing power we don’t know because Tesla will not tell us or release that information see weight of the sensors a hundred 90 grams always practically nothing and here is the amazing one it does so so much with only 4.5 watt power consumption so it is extremely energy-efficient now i don’t know if that 4.5 what does or does not also incorporate the power consumption for the radio meeting my guess is no eating generally is going to take a considerable amount of power and yeah that’s quite a bit there so I’m that is it I I know this one is the long one 30-minute video here and it was long probably boring but if you’re someone who was interested in learning about the radar systems that Tesla was using hope I was able to teach us something please don’t forget to Like subscribe below and if you have any questions comments please put them in the comment section below I do my best to answer however i’m up to like a thousand comments a day on my videos I can having a real hard time keeping keeping up all comments and hopefully some of you out there and fewer land if you have experienced or have knowledge or any kind of smarts dealing with the radars please help out and respond whenever you can that helps me to help you more so that covers it for this evening more to come have a happy new year smile cheese

7 thoughts on “Tesla Motors: Radar Mechanics Explained! Autopilot/Autonomous Radar

  1. I recall watching this video months ago. I think this is a repost. Could we note when videos where taken so we do not keep watching videos that we do not have to.

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